On the other hand, shoes that are too wide can cause shearing stress under the foot as it slides around, causing callus to build up under the ball of the foot and under the toes. A narrow foot in a wide shoe will slide forwards, causing compression and curling of the toes. By allowing your toes to curl inside a shoe, you disturb the resting positions of your extensor and flexor muscles. Over time, this can result in fatigue and even cramp. This is a very common condition that affects the base of the big toe. It occurs when the big toe gets pushed toward the second toe. Flat feet tend to differ by age. For children, flat feet are very common and rarely abnormal. Many children under six years years old seem to have flat feet because fat tissue fills the foot bridge. Fallen arches in children are asymptomatic and do not usually require treatment. Orthopedic shoes, physical therapy and templates have little effect on young children, however adolescents and older children with painful flat feet should consider orthopedic treatment. Without shoes, your ankles are unrestricted in all degrees of movement. Barefoot is the simplest and most time efficient way (training economy) of mobilizing the ankle, which will have a positive impact on the knee. Some of the brands that offer insoles for flat feet and high arched feet include Spenco Orthotic Arch Supports, Superfeet, Lynco, Sof Sole, Arch Angels, Sole and Dr Foot. The reviews on insoles for flat feet as well as high arches reveal that Spenco insoles are the best insoles. These are quite popular and are even recommended by doctors. Spenco Arch Cushions come with proper heel and forefoot cushioning and also help in evenly distributing weight over the entire foot. These can be inserted in casual shoes and running shoes. Many reputed footwear brands have also introduced best running shoes for high arches. After your toddler has begun to walk firmly, if he really has fallenarches (you can easily tell by giving him the test explained in Chapter 11) you will bepleased to know that treatment for the young child is very simple, and can easily becarried out at home. Simply put aside all his shoes and stockings and allow him to walkbarefooted. You can help by playing with his toes so he will wiggle them more, but in mostcases it is not necessary, since the child of two will start using his toes by himself themoment the impediment is removed from them. The arch area is made up of tendons and ligaments, so strengthening the arch takes longer than other areas of the body, according to Foot.com. Incorporating controlled training with less supportive shoes will help strengthen the arch, while performing stabilizing balance exercises like balancing on one foot will also help. However, we are born with the arches we have so if you have a very flexible arch it is not likely you will be able to get away with as little support as someone with a higher arch. In addition to wearing an orthotic, it is recommended to wear supportive shoes with some degree of built-in 'motion control'.